Mr. Castagno's CP and CPST Chemistry Classes 2014-15


HOW TO REMOVE A HOLD ON YOUR FINAL REPORT CARD due to a failure to return TEXTBOOK


IF YOU HAVE THE TEXTBOOK BUT HAVE NOT HANDED IT IN, BRING IT TO Mr. CASTAGNO's ROOM on TUESDAY, JUNE 23rd and a "Clearance" Slip will be provided that you can bring to Guidance to have the Hold removed.

If you return the textbook MONDAY, June 22nd after 12pm and Mr. Castagno is not in his room, place the book on the front desk and take the already-filled out clearance slip which you then must bring to Guidance.

If you do NOT have the textbook, read below:

BLUE BOOK (Periods 3 and 7)

Purchase a used copy of the textbook here:
http://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/0030735467/ref=dp_olp_used?ie=UTF8&condition=used
and when it has arrived, bring it to Guidance to have the Hold removed.

BROWN BOOK (Periods 1 and 5)

Purchase a used copy of the textbook here:
http://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/0785440453/ref=dp_olp_used?ie=UTF8&condition=used
and when it has arrived, bring it to Guidance to have the Hold removed.




The Ideal Gas Law

With the projector out of order, information regarding the Ideal Gas Law is here.

For a gas to be considered ideal, it must exhibit the behavior below:
1) Particles must be in constant motion
2) Particles must be far apart relative to their size
3) Collisions between particles and walls are considered elastic (no net energy loss)
4) The temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles
5*) Particles experience no forces of attraction

The problem with all of these assumptions is the fact #5 is wrong (everything exhibits forces of attraction); however, for the world we live in and experience, it is essentially true. When pressure is VERY HIGH and temperature is VERY LOW, Ideal Gas behavior breaks down. When pressure is very low and temperature is very high, ideal gas behavior is observed.

So far, none of the gas laws we have discussed included the AMOUNT of gas present.

It turns out that 1 mole of ANY gas (from the lightest hydrogen [H2] to xenon [Xe]) occupies 22.4L of volume under standard temperature and pressure conditions. This is known as Molar Volume.

Standard Temperature and Pressure - also known as STP - is 273K (0 C) and 1.0 atm (or equivalent pressure of 760mmHg, 101.3kPa, etc.).

Combining the information above with previous laws we can get the Ideal Gas Law equation which is PV = nRT.

P, V, T represent Pressure, Volume, and Temperature as usual. n represents moles (amount) and R is the gas constant which has 3 values for us.

R is PRESSURE dependent which means it changes depending on the unit of pressure. You will find this values in your packet too.

When P is in atm, R = 0.0821.
When P is in kPa, R = 8.314.
When P is in mmHg, R = 62.4

We can adjust the PV = nRT to include mass and molar mass because moles = mass / molar mass or n = m/M.

PV = mRT/M and if we rearrange this equation to solve for molar mass (which in turn allows us to identify a gas) we would get

M = (mRT)/(PV)
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2013-14

Percent Acid in Vinegar Report
Download the file for your class. In the appropriate cells put the names of your group members and the date.

Highlight in BLUE the data that is from your group. Write your conclusion in the box provided. Save to the desktop as "Period # Group # Lab Report" and email it to me. Once that is done delete the file from the desktop.

SPECIAL UPDATE for Periods 2, 4, and 7

Use this weekend to refresh your memory on all aspects of stoichiometry. You will have Monday to complete your assessment. Use this extra study time wisely! If you are not going to be here next week, then use your extra 10days to study up as you will finish the assessment on Tuesday April 22 before or after school.

Also, for everyone, your paper is due in 4 days. Information about it is below!

Elements Champions League Project

All of the paperwork for the project is below:


I have copies of these files printed for you to check at any time on my desk.

PERIOD 4 and 7 - Formula of Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate
Remember we did not do the complete procedure so do not simply copy and paste!


Steps completed: 2 (minus the initial heating), 3, 4, 5, and 7.
Data Table: We did not do a "second heating" but a second trial.
Calculations - should be included for each trial
Conclusion - answer the question below
If the actual formula of the hydrate is MgSO4·7H2O (Molar Mass = 246.47 g/mol), determine your percent error for Trial 1 and Trial 2 based off the molar mass of your calculated formulas.
Percent Error = (Your Answer - 246.47)/246.47 x 100 NOTE: You will probably end up with a negative percent error, ignore the negative.


Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide Lab

The following file contains the APPROXIMATE procedure. We did not complete every step in the procedure listed in this file so do not copy and paste!


Your lab report will include the following:
Introduction
Safety
Materials
Procedure
Data
Analysis/Calculations
- Remember there are 6 parts to this analysis that I went over in class.
Conclusion
1) The actual formula for magnesium oxide is MgO. If your empirical formula does NOT match the actual formula, explain why you think this occurred. If it does, explain what you could do to confirm the result.
2) What was the purpose of adding a few drops of water to the crucible after the reaction had finished?
3) When the water was added to the crucible and product, you may have noticed a pungent odor. What compound is responsible for this odor? (You must answer this even if you did not notice anything!)


Marking Period 2 ends on January 24th

Check PowerSchool as time is running out to complete all assignments. MidTerm Review practice problems are due the DAY of the exam and will not be accepted after.

"Hunting the Elements"
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Complete viewing "Hunting the Elements" on this link:
http://video.pbs.org/video/2217713569/

Here are the times each class finished:
Period 2 - COMPLETED IN CLASS
Period 4 - 95minutes
Period 6 -
Period 7 -

Atomic Theory POEM due 11/20
The poem must contain the following people and SOMETHING related to them. It does not need to include the same thing from the list below.

Connections from the quiz
Democritus - Atomos
Aristotle - Principles
Dalton - "Father"
Thomson - Cathode Ray Tube
Rutherford - Nucleus
Bohr - Solar System
Einstein/deBroglie - wave-particle duality
Heisenberg - uncertainty
Schrodinger - quantum mechanics

Rutherford Gold Foil Simulation Marble Lab - Due Week of 11/25
Actual Size of Black Marble: 31mm
Actual Size of Yellow Marble: 28.4mm




Thickness of Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc Lab Report (Due October 31-P4, November 1-P6, November 4-P7, November 6-P2)

omposition of Pennies Lab Report REVISIONS (Due October 31-P4, November 1-P6, November 4-P7, November 6-P2)


1) What is the density of the pennies tested in Part 1 and Part 2?
2) Classify each time period of pennies you tested as “mostly copper” or “mostly zinc” based on the data collected.
3) The composition of the penny changed significantly once. According to the data collected as a class, which time period did the change most likely occur? *Does research conducted at home support the data?*
4) What was the original composition of the penny? What is it today?
5) According to current market prices for copper and zinc, how much is a pre-composition-change penny worth in raw metal alone?

Here is the class data (will be updated when data is input)


BasicPennyLab.JPG

Identification of Materials Lab - CP (Due October ?)
Potential Identities all in g/mL

Acrylic - 1.16 - 1.19
Aluminum - 2.70
Brass - 8.0
Bronze - 8.5
Cadmium - 8.69
Cobalt - 8.86
Copper - 8.9 - 8.96
Delrin - 1.41
Latex - 0.92-.96
Magnesium - 1.74
Maple - 0.50 - 0.67
Nylon - 1.13
Oak - 0.6 - 0.9
Pine - 0.35 - 0.6
Polystyrene - 1.06
Poplar - 0.35 - 0.5
PVC - 1.39 - 1.42
Pyrex - 2.23
Rubber - 1.13-1.20
Scandium - 2.99
Steel - 7.6
Strontium - 2.64
Teflon - 2.20
Zinc - 7.14

Rules and Procedures
Your first assignment is to

1) Read the Class Rules document below. It is a PDF so Mac/PC should have no issue loading it

2) Read the Lab Safety Rules document. It is also PDF.

3) Now you are ready to print the Rules Acknowledgement and sign it as well as getting a parent/guardian to sign it:


Make sure that you and your parents/guardian sign the sheet acknowledging that you have read and understand the rules. Remember this is your first assignment so YAY for easy points!

Availability
I am always available for help after class until at least 3:20 (except 2 Monday's a month unavailable) until the hockey season starts (around November 15). I will still be available the majority of days but just check with me first and we can arrange something to fit our schedules.

Community as a Classroom

TBA

2012-13.

email: castagno@cranfordschools.org

Final Examination Prep

All missing assignments are due by June 17th. The Final Review is due the day of your examination and will not be accepted after.

Click here --> Final Prep

STOICHIOMETRY LAB

The file below contains the exact procedure from the experiment but the questions have changed to reflect how we discussed them in class.

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As usual, your lab report will include the following:
1) Introduction
2) Safety
3) Materials
4) Procedure
5) Data
6) Analysis/Calculations (the questions we went over in class)
7) Conclusions

ELEMENT CHAMPIONS LEAGUE PROJECT

All of the paperwork for the project is below:
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I have copies of these files printed for you to check at any time on my desk.

Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide Lab

The following file contains the APPROXIMATE procedure. We did not do every step in the procedure listed in this file so do not copy and paste!

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Your lab report will include the following:
Introduction (with your formula prediction at the end)
Safety
Materials
Procedure
Data
Analysis/Calculations
- Remember there are 4 parts to this analysis that I went over in class.
Conclusion
1) The actual formula for magnesium oxide is MgO. If your empirical formula does NOT match the actual formula, explain why you think this occurred.
2) What was the purpose of adding a few drops of water to the crucible after the reaction had finished?
3) When the water was added to the crucible and product, you may have noticed a pungent odor. What compound is responsible for this odor? (You must answer this even if you did not notice anything!)
4)

MIDTERM PREPARATIONS

All missing assignments are posted in the classroom on the blackboard. The due date is February 1, 2013 - the last day of MP2.

Click here --> MidTerm Prep

Rules and Procedures
Your first assignment is to print out the Class Rules and Lab Safety agreements below...on the same sheet of paper.

Star by printing the class rules below:
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On the class rules sheet is an arrow. After printing this page, insert the sheet on the top of remaining printer paper with the arrow facing in the direction the paper is fed into the printer.

Now you are ready to print the safety rules:
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If you did it properly, the area to sign both the class rules and the lab safety agreement should be at the bottom of both sides of the paper.

Make sure that you and your parents/guardian sign the sheet acknowledging that you have read and understand the rules. Remember this is your first assignment so YAY for easy points!

Atomic Theory Short Story Assessment - Due Monday, December 10th

You must create a short story involving the following characters: Democritus, Aristotle, John Dalton, J.J. Thompson, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger. Their contributions (or lack there of - I'm looking at you, Aristotle), must somehow be mentioned. BE CREATIVE. The 'cathode ray tube' experiment led to the invention of the TV in the real world...but it could have created something different in the world of the story.
Minimum 2pages double spaced.

Rutherford Simulation Lab - CP (Due on your lab day week of December 3rd)
Below is the lab handout in pdf form so PC/Mac should both be able to open
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The basic format for the lab is as follows
MarbleLabTemplate.JPG

Post-lab Questions
1) How can this experiment be adjusted in procedure to reduce experimental error?
2) Today we call the central part of the atom the "nucleus" but what did Rutherford initially call it?
3) The experiment was under the guidance of Rutherford but performed by Hans Geiger and James Marsden. These two individuals developed what important detection device still used today?
4) In World War II, the United States had the Manhattan Project. Germany was no different. What was it called?

Composition of Pennies Lab - CP (Due on your lab day week of October 22nd)

Below is the lab handout
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Here are the data tables and graph
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This is how your lab should be formatted. Adding text will change everything, of course.
PennyLabTemplate.jpg

Post-lab questions

1) What is the density of the pennies tested in Part 1 and Part 2?
2) Classify each time period of pennies you tested as “mostly copper” or “mostly zinc” based on the data collected.
3) The composition of the penny changed significantly once. According to the data collected as a class, which time period did the change most likely occur? *Does research conducted at home support the data?*
4) What was the original percent composition of the penny? What is it today?
5) According to current market prices for copper and zinc, how much is a pre-composition-change penny worth in raw metal alone?


Identification of Materials Lab - CP (Due October 12)
Potential Identities all in g/mL

Metals
Aluminum - 2.70
Cadmium - 8.69
Cobalt - 8.86
Copper - 8.96
Magnesium - 1.74
Scandium - 2.99
Strontium - 2.64
Zinc - 7.14

Alloys
Brass - 8.4
Bronze - 8.5
Stainless Steel - 8.03

Plastics
Delrin - 1.41
Nylon - 1.15
Polystyrene - 1.06
PVC - 1.83

Miscellaneous Materials
Acrylic - 1.18
Latex - 0.92-.96
Pyrex - 2.23
Rubber - 1.13-1.20
Teflon - 2.20



Observation of a Candle Lab - CP (LAB REPORT DUE TUESDAY OCTOBER 9)



Lab Procedure

1) In your observations in Step 2 differentiate between Physical and Chemical changes.
2) Does candle wax burn as a solid, liquid or a vapor? Explain.
3) In order for combustion to occur, there must be a fuel. Interpret some of your findings to determine the other requirements.
4) There is more than one product from combustion. From Step 5, your observations lead you to believe what substance is part of the products?
5) What change in water level occurred in Step 7? Propose an explanation for this change.
6) How can Sir Humphry Davy be connected with this laboratory exercise?
7) What happened to the limewater as you poured it into the flask and then swirled? What product was formed by this action?


Availability
I am always available for help after class until at least 3:20 (except 2 Monday's a month unavailable) until the hockey season starts (around November 15). I will still be available the majority of days but just check with me first and we can arrange something to fit both my schedule and yours.

Community as a Classroom

TBA